1992 Tribal Clashes “Were Instigated by Biwott ‘Business Associate’”

Posted on 4 September 2007. Filed under: Corruption, Insecurity, Politics |

Kroll Report Analysis Part II

The PROJECT KTM – Consolidated Report (commonly referred to as Kroll Report) dated 27 April 2004 alleges that a Mr. Danny Vardi was ‘used to instigate tribal clashes in 1992’. The same individual is variously accused of being behind the deaths and disappearance of key Dr. Robert Ouko murder witnesses. See Part I of our report here: Kroll Report Awakes Ouko Ghost

Nothing raises so much fear and apprehension in Kenya’s rural and urban (especially slum) population as the spectre of “ethnic conflicts” and/or “land clashes”, similar to those that rocked the country in the build-up to the 1992 multi-party general elections and after. The wave of inter-ethnic conflicts in the Rift Valley, Nyanza, Western and some parts of the Coastal provinces went down in Kenya’s history as the worst since independence, and those which scarred some Kenyan families forever.

The Kroll Report seems to suggest that the ruling class of 1990s took advantage of the fact that all of Kenyan provinces are haunted by actual or potential ethnic conflicts and actually hired an ex-Israeli Defence Force Commander to instigate these clashes.

Certain politicians in Kenya are known to rely on ethnicity to perpetuate their dominance and hegemony in an atmosphere characterized by scarce resources, fear and prejudice. The proliferation of ethnic conflicts in this country is so widespread that there is hardly any region where the problem has not been reported with heavy casualties or even death.

In a paper prepared for USAID Conference on Conflict Resolution in the Greater Horn of Africa, Barasa Kundu Nyukuri describes the effects of the 1992 clashes thus:

The social consequences of the clashes in Kenya were enormous and cannot be easily quantified, especially the psycho-social ones. Most of the victims of these clashes were left homeless, landless, destitute, injured, dead, abused, to mention but a few of the atrocities resulting from the menace. The immediate and real consequence of the clashes in Kenya was felt most at personal and family level. There was loss of security in the clash-prone areas as the civilians took the law into their own hands, targeting perceived enemies. As a result of insecurity, there was indiscriminate loss of human life.

Food shortage was one of the far reaching economic consequences of the clashes in the study areas. There was a drop in food production, food supply and raw materials for the agro-based industries such as sugar, tea, coffee, cereal (maize), pyrethrum and other agricultural crops. As a result of food shortages, many clashes victims experienced famine and this necessitated the appeal for local and international food aid and relief.

As a result of the clashes in Kenya, thousands of families lost a lot of personal and household possessions as their houses, granaries, farms, shops and other business premises went down in flames. The Kiliku Parliamentary Select Committee of September, 1992 put the death toll of clashes victims at 778, those injured at 654 and those displaced at 62,000. These figures exclude the number of persons who were killed, injured and displaced after September 1992. The Human Rights Watch/Africa, estimated that the number of those killed by November, 1993 was at least 1500, while those displaced was at least 300,000. However, with continued clashes in 1994 and 1995, the total number of those who died, injured or displaced increased drastically, following the Enosopukia, Maela, Mtondia, Nyatike and Kibera incidence. If we were to go by the NCCK Review Report of August/September 1994, the number of displaced people for 15 districts in Kenya was about 311,433 persons in 43,075 households. This study, building on the previous statistics, estimated that up to July, 1995, at least 1800 people were killed, 30,000 injured and 350,000 displaced as a result of the clashes. To this date, no politician has ever been charged in a court of law for instigating these clashes.

The clashes also caused untold environmental consequences whose effects we are probably feeling now. In Molo, Nandi and Mt. Elgon, large areas of forest land were set on fire as part of a defensive strategy taken by victims of the clashes, to deny their attackers hiding grounds. This development in the long run may lead to catastrophic effects on the environment of these areas. In fact, these areas are some of the densely forested zones in Kenya and some are important rain catchment areas. The consequence of massive destruction of forests as was witnessed during the clashes in the mentioned areas would therefore affect the pattern and intensity of rainfall and subsequently affect the viability of rain-fed agriculture and water supply in these zones. For instance, Mt. Elgon is the major source of perennial rivers such as Kuywa and Kibisi, which flows into Nzoia River that draws into Lake Victoria. Any effect, therefore, on the Mt. Elgon water catchment area will have negative consequences on Lake Victoria and its surroundings.

The Kroll Report should be a pointer of the motivation that made the then ruling class insecure and therefore inclinated to instigate clashes that left life long scars on Kenyan people.


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12 Responses to “1992 Tribal Clashes “Were Instigated by Biwott ‘Business Associate’””

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innocent men women and children have died

why are this instigators still walking around and nothing being done to bring them to book? they are still causing deaths even now(2008) and we know who they are why is nothing being done.and people are still brewing hatred towards their neighbours .why cant people shun violence and tribalism and live in peace?

Very good review. Useful in the transitional justice process.

thank you very much for the research. however, due to corruption in country no leader will be motivated by either report unless, Ocampo’s mission is fulfiled before next election.

No body knows the consequences of being displaced unless you’ve have had the experience. “And if the kenyan Government never cres about its IDPs who will care anyway?? The IDPS will continue sufferings until the end of there lives. Its a pity for the kenyan governments to ignore its own so called citizens.

why are kenyans still floating on this monsteq called tribalism? kenyans wake up!! take anybody as your brother.

Should never happen again today or even in future or today

Very nice write-up. I certainly appreciate this website.

Keep writing!

I drop a comment each time I especially enjoy a article on
a website or if I have something to valuable to contribute
to the conversation. It’s caused by the fire displayed in the post I read. And after this post 1992 Tribal Clashes Were Instigated by Biwott ‘Business Associate’ | Kenya Environmental & Political News Weblog. I was actually moved enough to post a thought 😉 I actually do have some questions for you if it’s allright.
Is it simply me or do a few of the responses come
across as if they are written by brain dead individuals?
😛 And, if you are writing at additional places, I’d like to keep up with you. Could you list every one of your social pages like your Facebook page, twitter feed, or linkedin profile?

[…] at clearing his name are often hilarious- and ridiculously expensive). More specifically, one of the Total Man’s ‘business’ associates, a Mr. Danny Vardi. said to be the same guy behind the disappearance of key Dr. Robert Ouko murder […]

[…] at clearing his name are often hilarious- and ridiculously expensive. More specifically, one of the Total Man’s ‘business’ associates, a Mr. Danny Vardi. said to be the same guy behind the disappearance of key Dr. Robert Ouko murder […]

i think the investigator is not clear on his report he is talking much about the results other than the causes

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